Endnotes

1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Child Welfare. Available at: http://youth.gov/youth-topics/lgbtq-youth/child-welfare; and Child Welfare Information Gateway: Supporting Your LGBTQ Youth: A Guide for Foster Parents. Available at: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/LGBTQyouth.pdf

2 Child Welfare League of America: Best Practice Guidelines: Serving LGBT Youth in Out of Home Care: Available at: http://www.nclrights.org/legal-help-resources/resource/child-welfare-league-of-america-cwla-best-practice-guidelines-serving-lgbt-youth-in-out-of-home-care/; and Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Blueprint for Fundamental Change to Ontario’s Child Welfare System. Available at: http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/childrensaid/youthleavingcare.pdf

3 Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Because Young People Matter: Report of the Residential Services Review Panel. Available at: http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/childrensaid/residential-services-review-panel-report-feb2016.pdf

4 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: LGBT Youth Suicide Prevention Summit 2012: Report on Outcomes and Recommendations. Available at: http://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/YSPS-Report-online.pdf

5 Office of the Ontario Child Advocate. Available at: https://www.provincialadvocate.on.ca/

6 Trans Student Educational Resources: Gender Unicorn. Available at http://www.transstudent.org/gender

7 Unless otherwise referenced, definitions of terms and identities within this glossary have been adapted from Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Glossary of Terms. Available at: https://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Egales-Glossary-of-Terms.pdf

8 Adapted from The 519: The 519’s Glossary of Terms. Available at: http://www.the519.org/education-training/glossary

9 Adapted from the definition developed by Gender Creative Kids Canada. Available at:http://gendercreativekids.ca/about/

10 Walter L. Williams. The Two-Spirit People of Indigenous North Americans. Available at: http://www.firstpeople.us/articles/the-two-spirit-people-of-indigenous-north-americans.html

11 PFLAG: About the Q. Available at: https://www.pflag.org/blog/about-q

12 Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies: Ontario Child Welfare Eligibility Spectrum. Available at: http://www.oacas.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Eligibility-Spectrum-2016-6.75-x-8.5-EN.pdf

13 Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Ontario Child Protection Standards. Available at: http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/childrensaid/Child-Protection-Standards-2016.pdf

14 United Nations: Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf

15 United Nations: Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf

16 Kimberlé Crenshaw. Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: a Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. The University of Chicago Legal Forum. Available at: http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8

17 Ontario Human Rights Commission: Grounds of Discrimination: Definitions and Scope of Protection. Available at: http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/iii-principles-and-concepts/3-grounds-discrimination-definitions-and- scope-protection.

18 Rainbow Resource Centre: Heterosexism. Available at: http://www.rainbowresourcecentre.org/files/12-11-Heterosexism.pdf.

19 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Glossary of Terms. Available at: https://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Egales-Glossary-of-Terms.pdf

20 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Glossary of Terms. Available at: https://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Egales-Glossary-of-Terms.pdf

21 Adapted from Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Glossary of Terms. Available at: https://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Egales-Glossary-of-Terms.pdf

22 Adapted from The 519: The 519’s Glossary of Terms. Available at: http://www.the519.org/education-training/glossary

23 Lamba Legal: Getting Down to Basics. Available at: www.lambdalegal.org/publications/getting-down-to-basics

24 Family Acceptance Project: Family Rejection of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adolescents & Negative Health Outcomes. Available at: http://FamilyProject.sfsu.edu

25 TransPulse: Stats and Information. Available at: http://transpulseproject.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Trans-PULSE-Statistics-Relevant-for-Human-Rights-Policy-June-2015.pdf

26 Family Acceptance Project: Family Rejection of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adolescents & Negative Health Outcomes. Available at: http://FamilyProject.sfsu.edu

27 Lambda Legal: Getting Down to Basics. Available at: http://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/lgbtq_youth_risk_data_2015.pdf

28 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health: Substance Use: Issues to consider for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, transsexual, two-spirit, intersex and queer communities. Available at: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/health_equity/Pages/substance_use_lgbtttiq.aspx

29 National Aboriginal Health Organization: Suicide prevention and two spirited people. Available at: http://www.naho.ca/documents/fnc/english/2012_04_%20Guidebook_Suicide_Prevention.pdf

30 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: What You Should Know About LGBTQ Youth Suicide in Canada. Available at: https://egale.ca/backgrounder-lgbtq-youth-suicide/

31 Lambda Legal: Getting Down to Basics. Available at: www.lambdalegal.org/publications/getting-down-to-basics

32 Rainbow Health Ontario: About LGBTQ Health. Available at: http://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/about-lgbtq-health

33 Rainbow Health Ontario: About LGBTQ Health. Available at: http://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/about-lgbtq-health

34 Rainbow Health Ontario: About LGBTQ Health. Available at: http://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/about-lgbtq-health

35 Status of Women Canada: Gender Based Violence. Available at: http://www.swc-cfc.gc.ca/violence/strategy-strategie/gbv-vfs-en.html

36 YWCA USA: LGBTQ Survivors of Gender Based Violence. Available at: http://www.ywca-shr.org/atf/cf/%7B6411EC3E-4C0E-4CA5-8FC7-03D5E35CB907%7D/LGBTQ_GBV_Fact_Sheet.pdf

37 Sarah Hunt. An Introduction to the Health of Two-Spirit People: Historical, contemporary and emergent issues. National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Available at: https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/495/An_Introduction_to_the_Health_of_Two-Spirit_People__Historical,_contemporary_and_emergent_issues.nccah?id=156

38 Canadian Civil Liberties Association: LGBTQ Rights in Schools. Available at: https://ccla.org/cclanewsite/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/LGBTQ-Rights-in-Schools-CCLA-and-CCLET-FINAL.pdf.pdf

39 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Every Class in Every School: Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia in Canadian Schools. Available at http://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/EgaleFinalReport-web.pdf

40 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Every Class in Every School: Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia in Canadian Schools. Available at http://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/EgaleFinalReport-web.pdf

41 Kumar Ramanathan. LGBT Youth Face High Levels of Cyberbullying. Think Progress. Available at: https://thinkprogress.org/study-lgbt-youth-face-high-levels-of-cyberbullying-93931ef9fa63.

42 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: My GSA Equity and Inclusive Education Resource Kit. Available at: https://egale.ca/portfolio/mygsa/

43 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Every Class in Every School: Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia in Canadian Schools. Available at: http://egale.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/EgaleFinalReport-web.pdf.

44 Canadian Civil Liberties Association: LGBTQ Rights in Schools. Available at: https://ccla.org/cclanewsite/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/LGBTQ-Rights-in-Schools-CCLA-and-CCLET-FINAL.pdf.pdf.

45 Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Child Welfare Secretariat: Serving LGBT2SQ Children and Youth: A Resource Guide for Child Welfare Staff and Caregivers: Survey Results.

46 Stephen Gaetz, Bill O’Grady, Sean Kidd & Kaitlin Schwan. Without a Home: The National Youth Homelessness Survey. Canadian Observatory on Homelessness. Available at: http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/WithoutAHome-final.pdf

47 Stephen Gaetz, Bill O’Grady, Sean Kidd & Kaitlin Schwan. Without a Home: The National Youth Homelessness Survey. Canadian Observatory on Homelessness. Available at: http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/WithoutAHome-final.pdf

48 Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Because Young People Matter: Report of the Residential Services Review Panel. Available at: http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/childrensaid/residential-services-review-panel-report-feb2016.pdf

49 Stephen Gaetz, Bill O’Grady, Sean Kidd & Kaitlin Schwan. (2016). Without a Home: The National Youth Homelessness Survey. Canadian Observatory on Homelessness. Available at: http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/WithoutAHome-final.pdf

50 Stephen Gaetz, Bill O’Grady, Sean Kidd & Kaitlin Schwan. Without a Home: The National Youth Homelessness Survey. Canadian Observatory on Homelessness. Available at: http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/WithoutAHome-final.pdf

51 Toronto Aboriginal Support Services Council: Forgotten Voices: Indigenous LGBT*QIA and Two-Spirit youth and homeless. Available at: http://www.tassc.ca/forgotten-voices.html

52 Ministry of Children and Youth Services: Achieving Cultural Competence: A Diversity Tool Kit for Residential Care Settings. Available at: http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/specialneeds/residential/achieving_cultural_competence.pdf; and Lambda Legal: Getting Down to Basics. Available at: www.lambdalegal.org/publications/getting-downto-basics

53 United States Department of Health and Human Services: Child Welfare. Available at: http://youth.gov/youth-topics/lgbtq-youth/child-welfare

54 Egale Canada Human Rights Trust: Every Class in Every School: Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia in Canadian Schools. Available at: https://egale.ca/every-class/

55 Jennifer L. Wainright, Stephen T. Russell & Charlotte J. Patterson. Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00823.x

56 Shira Maguen, Frank J. Floyd, Roger Bakeman & Lisa Armistead. Developmental milestones and disclosure of sexual orientation among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397302001053.

57 American Psychological Association: Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts. Available at: http://www.apa.org/about/policy/sexual-orientation.aspx

58 American Psychological Association: Sexual Orientation, Parents, & Children. Available at: http://www.apa.org/about/policy/parenting.aspx

59 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health: Raising Resilient Children and Youth. Available at: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/for_parents/Pages/raising_resilient_children.aspx.

60 Michele M. Tugade & Barbara L. Fredrickson. Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions To Bounce Back From Negative Emotional Experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3132556/.

61 Best Start: Building Resilience in Young Children. Available at: http://www.beststart.org/resources/hlthy_chld_dev/pdf/BSRC_Resilience_English_fnl.pdf.

62 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health: Raising Resilient Children and Youth. Available at: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/for_parents/Pages/raising_resilient_children.aspx

63 Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University: Resilience. Available at: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/science/key-concepts/resilience/

64 University of California Irvine, LGBT Resource Centre: Ally Info. Available at: http://lgbtrc.uci.edu/resource-library/ally-info/index.php

65 Child Welfare Information Gateway: Supporting Your LGBTQ Youth: A Guide for Foster Parents. Available at: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/LGBTQyouth.pdf

66 The Williams Institute: Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in Foster Care. Available at: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/LAFYS_report_final-aug-2014.pdf

67 Family Acceptance Project: Family Rejection of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adolescents & Negative Health Outcomes. Available at: http://FamilyProject.sfsu.edu

68 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: A Practitioner’s Resource Guide: Helping Families to Support Their LGBT Children. Available at: https://www.suicideinfo.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Helping-Families-to-Support-Their-LGBT-Children_oa.pdf.

69 United States Department for Health and Human Services: Administration for Children and Families: 2016 RISE Project Care Coordination Program Manual. Available at: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/resource/pii-rise-cct-program-manual.

70 Child Welfare League of America and Lambda Legal: Recommended Practices to Promote the Safety and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth and Youth at Risk of or Living with HIV in Child Welfare Settings. Available at: https://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/publications/downloads/recommended-practices-youth.pdf

71 Child Welfare League of America and Lambda Legal: Recommended Practices To Promote the Safety and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth and Youth at Risk of or Living with HIV in Child Welfare Settings. Available at: https://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/publications/downloads/recommended-practices-youth.pdf

72 United States Department for Health and Human Services: Administration for Children and Families: 2016 RISE Project Care Coordination Program Manual. Available at: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/resource/pii-rise-cct-program-manual

73 New York City Administration for Children’s Services: LGBTQ Affirming Foster and Adoptive Parents Needed. Available at: https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/acs/pdf/lgbtq/ACS_AffirmingFamiliesBrochure.pdf

74 American Humane Association: Love and Belonging for a Lifetime: Youth Permanency in Child Welfare. Available at: http://silbermanssw.org/ssw/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/pc-26-1.pdf.

75 TransPulse Project: Health care availability, quality, and unmet need: A comparison of transgender and cisgender residents of Ontario, Canada. Available at: http://transpulseproject.ca/research/health-care-availability-quality-and-unmet-need-a-comparison-of-transgender-and-cisgender-residents-of-ontario-canada/

76 New York City Administration for Children’s Services: Safe & respected: policy, best practice, and guidance for serving transgender and gender non-conforming children and youth involved in the child welfare, detention, and juvenile justice systems. Available at: http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/acs/pdf/lgbtq/FINAL_06_23_2014_WEB.pdf; and Child Welfare League of America and Lambda Legal: Working with transgender youth. Available at: http://www.lambdalegal.org/sites/default/files/gdtb_2013_09_transgender_youthr.pdf

77 Girl’s Best Friend Foundation & Advocates for Youth: Creating Safe Space for GLBTQ Youth: A Toolkit. Available at: http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/storage/advfy/documents/safespace.pdf

78 Rainbow Health Ontario: Positive Space. Available at: http://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/resources/positive-space-2/

79 Rainbow Health Ontario: Positive Space. Available at: http://www.rainbowhealthontario.ca/resources/positive-space-2/

80 Human Rights Campaign: Benchmarks of LGBTQ Competency. Available at: http://www.hrc.org/resources/benchmarks-of-lgbtq-cultural-competency

81 Annie E. Casey Foundation: LGBT in Child Welfare – A Systematic Review. Available at: http://www.aecf.org/m//resourcedoc/aecf-LGBTQinChildWelfare-2016.pdf

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