Accreditation: A review process focused on quality indicators in which certification rests on an assessment of meeting standards.

Models of residential care provision: In the context of residential care, a theoretical framework used by governing bodies or service providers to implement strategies that strengthen service delivery and efficacy.

Open custody and detention: Residences where youth sentenced to a term of open custody under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) or remanded into open detention are court-ordered to live under supervision. Open custody and detention residences are designated under the YCJA.

Secure custody and detention: Secure facilities where youth sentenced to a term of secure custody or ordered into secure detention by the Courts under the Youth Criminal Justice Act, are held.

Compassion fatigue: Profound emotional and physical erosion that takes place when helpers are unable to refuel and regenerate while providing care for young people in need of empathy and compassion.

Vicarious trauma: The process by which caregivers experience secondary trauma responses as a result of being exposed to the traumatic experiences of young people. One’s fundamental beliefs about the world are altered and possibly damaged by being repeatedly exposed to trauma.

Self-care: Refers to the care provided “for you, by you.” This care occurs when one identifies their needs and takes the appropriate steps to meet them. This can be achieved by engaging in activities that nurture those needs.

Private group care: Privately operated residences that provide residential care, programs and services to young people.

Private foster care: Foster care provided by private organizations. The placement of the child or youth is normally arranged through a children’s aid society.

Public group care: Residences that provide residential care, programs and services to young people. Could include residential services provided by children and youth mental health service providers and children’s aid societies, usually funded through transfer payments..

Public foster care: Foster care usually provided directly through children’s aid societies.

Licensing Specialists (checklists): MCYS-hired staff in regional offices who conduct annual licensing inspections using a checklist. The licensing process includes a physical inspection, reviews of policies and procedures of the licensee, file reviews and interviews with the licensee, staff, residents and a sample of foster parents and foster children.

Relational practice: A theoretical orientation focused on the relationship between caregivers and young people; relationships and attachment are fundamental tools for developing social competence and enhancing healthy development for children and youth.

Plans of Care: The process through which caregivers and case managers work with children, youth and sometimes their families to develop plans, goals and measurable milestones for young people in care. Crisis intervention package: An approved curriculum that trains staff in the prevention of crises and in physical interventions; five such packages are currently approved by MCYS.

Outside paid resources (OPRs): This term originated in early CAS budget forms to refer to purchase of residential services from a supplier outside of the CAS itself. It has come to be synonymous with providers of residential services who receive payment on a per diem basis. While most such providers are for-profit, private operators, there are also a number of transfer payment and not-for-profit providers who offer services on a per diem basis.

Transfer payment agencies (TPAs): An approach to funding service providers whereby a set amount of funds are transferred to the service provider on an annual basis, as distinct from per diem funding, which is based on a set fee for each young person per night spent in a bed. Most transfer payment agencies are incorporated non-for-profit organizations that receive funding from government, typically on an annualized basis, to provide programs and services. In this context, examples of transfer payment agencies are Children’s Aid Societies (CAS), children and youth mental health agencies and many youth justice secure and open custody/detention agencies that are not directly operated by MCYS.

Life-space (context/relationships): A primary method of intervention in Child and Youth Care practice which uses the setting to promote change and development. Interventions include strategies which occur as a result of planned environmental design, routine daily activities, relational interventions and momentary interactions. The therapeutic use of daily life events in residential or other settings where there is a shared life space with clients. Daily life events are used by the practice team to help the young people gain understanding of their life experiences.

Special Rate Agreements (SRAs): Costs paid by the Placing Agency on behalf of the child in care that is not covered in the per diem rate, due to the extraordinary needs of the child. These needs may be associated with physical, health, developmental or emotional challenges that require higher than normal staffing, dietary costs and equipment.

Per diem rates: The MCYS-approved per day rate which an operator can charge the placing agency for a child occupying a bed in the program.