Addams, J. (1909). The spirit of youth and the city street. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Aichhorn, A. (1951). Wayward youth. London, UK: Imago.

Alkhenizan, A., & Shaw, C. (2012). The Attitudes of Health Care Professionals Towards Accreditation: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Family and Community Medicine, 19(2), 74-80.

Allen, K., Barrett, K., Blau, G., Brown, J., Ireys, H., Krissik, T., & Pires, S. (2011). Youth and family participation in the governance of residential treatment facilities. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 28, 311-326. Doi 10.1080/0886571X.2011.615238

American Association of Children’s Residential Centers. (2009). Redefining residential: Performance indicators and outcomes. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 26(4), 241-245.

American Association of Children’s Residential Centres (AACRC). (2014). Youth-guided treatment. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 31(2), 90-96. Doi:10.1080/0886571X.2014.918424

Anglin, J. (2003). Pain, Normality, and the Struggle for Congruence: Reinterpreting Residential Care for Children and Youth. London, UK: Routledge.

Australian Government. (2015). Report on government services 2015: Child protection services (chapter 15). Australian Government Productivity Commission. Retrieved from­government-services/2015/community-services/child-protection .

Bay Consulting Group. (2006). The Bay Report. Retrieved from

Bell, E., Robinson, A., & See, C. (2013). Do Written Mandatory Accreditation Standards for Residential Care Positively Model Learning Organizations? Textual and Critical Discourse Analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50, 1446-1458.

Bettelheim, B. (1974). Home for the heart. New York, NY: Knopf.

Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The resilience code: Finding greatness in youth. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 12(4), 194-200.

Brendtro, L., & Mitchell, M. (2015). Deep brain learning: Evidence-based essentials in education, treatment, and youth development. Albion, Michigan: Starr Commonwealth.

British Columbia Ministry of Children and Family Development. (2015a). Fatalities of children in care by calendar year. Retrieved from .

British Columbia Ministry of Children and Family Development. (2015b). Performance management report, volume 6. Retrieved from­parents-with-young-children/reporting-monitoring/03-operational-performance-strategic-management/ mcfd_pmr_mar_2015.pdf .

Cairns, K. (2002). Attachment, Trauma and Resilience: Therapeutic Caring for Children. London, UK: British Association for Adoption and Fostering

California Child Welfare Indicators Project. (2016). CCWIP reports. Retrieved from .

Canadian Human Rights Tribunal. (2016). First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada et al. v. Attorney General of Canada (for the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada) file # T1340/7008

Child Fund Australia. (2012). The role of child and youth participation in development effectiveness. A literature review, 1-25. Retrieved from Participation_in_Development_Effectiveness.pdf

Children and youth mental health Ontario. (2015). Implementing a Future Residential Treatment System for Children and Youth with Complex Mental Health Needs. (Draft).

Coll, K., Sass, M., Freeman, B., Thobro, P., & Hauser, N. (2013). Treatment Outcomes Different Between Youth Offenders From a Rural Joint Commission Accredited Residential Treatment Center and a Rural Non-Accredited Center. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 30, 227-237.

Courtney, M.E., Dworsky, A., Brown, A., Cary, C., Love, K., & Vorhies, V. (2011). Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Outcomes at age 26. Chicago: Chapin Hall.

Fallon, B., Van Wert, M., Trocmé, N., MacLaurin, B., Sinha, V., Lefebvre, R., Allan, K., Black, T., Lee, B., Rha, W., Smith, C., & Goel, S. (2015). Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013). Toronto, ON: Child Welfare Research Portal

Fewster, G. (2014). Be gone, dull care. In K. Gharabaghi, H. Skott-Myhre, & M. Krueger (Eds.), With children and youth: Emerging theories and practices in child and youth care work (pp. 189-206). Waterloo, CAN: WLU Press

Finlay, J., & Scully, B. (2016). Cross Over Kids Project. (Forthcoming).

Flynn, R.; Dudding, P; & Barber, J. (2006) (Eds.). Promoting resilience in child welfare. Ottawa, CAN: University of Ottawa Press.

Foster Parents Society of Ontario. (2015). Strengthening Family Based Care Brief – A Foster Parents Society of Ontario Initiative – Prepared for the First Annual Winter Caregivers Forum. Retrieved from http://fosterparentssociety. org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/BestPracticesBrief-Jan-29-2014.pdf

Garfat, T. (2008). The inter-personal in-between: An exploration of relational child and youth care practice. In G. Bellefuille & R. Ricks (Eds.), Standing on the precipice: Inquiry into the creative potential of child and youth care practice (pp. 7-34). Edmonton, CAN: MacEwan Press.

Gharabaghi, K. (2009). Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children’s Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 26(3), 161-180. doi: 10.1080/08865710903130228

Gharabaghi, K. (2010). In-Service Training and Professional Development in Residential Child and Youth Care Settings: A Three Sector Comparison in Ontario. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 27(2), 92-114. doi: 10.1080/08865711003712550

Gharabaghi, K., & Stuart, C. (2013). Right here, right now: Life-space intervention with children and youth. Toronto, ON: Pearson.

Holden, M. (2009). Children and Residential Experiences: Creating Conditions for Change. Washington, DC: Children and Family Press

Kinark Child and Family Services. (2015). Strengthening Children and youth mental health Residential Treatment through Evidence and Experience. Retrieved from Children%E2%80%99s%20Mental%20Health%20Residential%20Treatment%20Through%20Evidence%20 and%20Experience.pdf

Knorth, E., Harder, A., Zandberg, T., & Kendrick, A. (2008). Under one roof: A review and selective meta-analysis on the outcomes of residential child and youth care. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 123-140. Retrieved from

Korczack, J. [1925] (1992). When I am little again and the child’s right to respect. New York, NY: University Press of America.

Kozlowski, A., Sinha, V., & Richard, K. (2012). First Nations Child Welfare in Ontario CWRP Information Sheet #100E. Montreal, QC: McGill University, Centre for Research on Children and Families.

McMurtry, R., & Curling, A. (2008). Roots of Youth Violence. Retrieved from

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (nd). MCYS Foundation Decks. (Confidential).

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2006). A Shared Responsibility: Ontario’s Policy Framework for Child and Youth Mental Health. Retrieved from mentalhealth/shared_responsibility.aspx

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2007). Ministry of Children and Youth Services 2013-2018 Strategic Plan. Retrieved from .

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008a). Open Minds, Healthy Minds: Ontario’s Comprehensive Mental Health and Addictions Strategy. Retrieved from reports/mental_health2011/mentalhealth.aspx

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008b). Achieving Cultural Competence: A Diversity Tool Kit for Residential Care Settings. Retrieved from residential/achieving_cultural_competence.pdf

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008c). Realizing potential: Our children, our youth, our future. Retrieved from .

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2013). Blueprint for Fundamental Change to Ontario’s Child Welfare System: Final Report of the Youth Leaving Care Working Group. Retrieved from English/topics/childrensaid/childrensaidsocieties/reports/youthleavingcare.aspx

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2014). Stepping Up: A Strategic Framework to Help Ontario’s Youth Succeed. Retrieved from steppingup/steppingup.pdf

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2015a). CFSA Review. Retrieved from english/about/CFSA2014/index.aspx

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2015b). Residential Services for Children and Youth. Retrieved from

Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2015c). Children’s Residential Licensing. Retrieved from

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE UK). (2013). Looked-after children and young people. Retrieved from­people-2098601204677 .

Office of the Auditor General of Ontario. (2015). Annual Report - Child protection services program. Retrieved from

Office of the Child and Family Service Advocacy. (2007). We Are Your Sons and Daughters. Retrieved from

Office of the Child and Youth Advocate, Alberta. (2012). Annual Report 2011-12 of OCYA, Alberta. Retrieved from

Ombudsman Ontario. (2003). 2002-2003 Annual Report. Retrieved from .

Ombudsman Ontario. (2005). Between a rock and a hard place: Parents forced to place their children with severe disabilities in the custody of Children’s Aid Societies to obtain necessary care. Retrieved from .

Ontario Center of Excellence in Children and youth mental health. (2013). Evidence In-Sight. Retrieved from

Peel Children’s Aid Society. (2013). Peel Children’s Aid Society’s Annual Report. Retrieved from

Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (2011). 25 is the new 21. Toronto, ON: Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth.

Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (2012). My REAL Life Book – Reports from Youth Leaving Care Hearings. Retrieved from

Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (2013). It Depends on Who’s Working. Retrieved from

Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (2014). Feathers of Hope: A First Nations Youth Action Plan. Retrieved from

Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (nd). Serious Occurrence Report Review. (Forthcoming).

Phelan, J. (2015). The long and short of it: Child and youth care. Cape Town, South Africa: The CYC-Net Press.

Roberts Smart Center. (2015). Best Practices. Retrieved from

Rubin, D.M., O’Reilly, A.L.R., Hafner, L., Luan, X., & Localio, A.R. (2007). Placement stability and early behavioral outcomes among children in out-of-home care. In R. Haskins, F. Wulczyn, & M.B. Webb (Eds.), Child protection: Using research to improve policy and practice (pp. 171-188). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Runyan, D., & Gould, C. (1985). Foster care for child maltreatment: Impact on delinquent behavior. Pediatrics, 75, 562 – 568.

Ryan, J.P., & Testa, M.F. (2005). Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency: Investigating the role of placement and placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 227-249.

Sinha, V., Trocmé, N., Fallon, B., MacLaurin, B., Fast, E., Thomas Prokop, S.,…Richard, K. (2011). Kiskisik Awasisak: Remember the Children. Understanding the Overrepresentation of First Nations Children in the Child Welfare System. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations.

Sinha, V., & Wray, M. (2015). Foster Care Disparity for First Nations Children in 2011. Canadian Child Welfare Research Portal (CWRP) Information Sheet. Montreal, QC, Canada: Centre for Research on Children and Families, McGill University.

Smith, M. (2009). Rethinking Residential Child Care: Positive Perspectives. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

Smith, M., Fulcher, L.& Doran, P. (2013). Residential child care in practice: Making a difference. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.

Statistics Canada. (2015). Living Arrangements of Young Adults aged 20 to 29. Retrieved from

Toronto Star. (2015). Why are so many black children in foster and group homes? Retrieved from homes.html

Toronto Star. (2015). The Game: Living Hell in Hotel Chains. Retrieved from

Trocmé, N., Esposito, T., Chabot, M., Duret, A., & Gaumont, C. (2013). Gestion fondée sur les indicateurs de suivi clinique: Rapport Synthese. Association des centres jeunesse du Quebec: Novembre 2013, pp 1-9.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Calls to Action. Retrieved from Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

UK Government. (2014). Outcomes for children looked after by local authorities in England as at 31 March 2014. National Statistics. Retrieved from data/file/384781/Outcomes_SFR49_2014_Text.pdf .

UK Government. (2015). Children looked after placements by English local authorities as at 31 March 2014. Ofsted. Retrieved from­march-2014 .

UK Government. (2016). Find an inspection report. Ofsted. Retrieved from .

Ungar, M. (2002). Playing at being bad: The hidden resilience of troubled teens. Lawrencetown Beach, NS: Pottersfield Press.

Ungar, M. (2004). Nurturing hidden resilience in troubled teens. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Ungar, M. (2015). I still love you: Nine things troubled kids need from their parents. Toronto, ON: Dundurn Publishers.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Child welfare outcomes 2009-2012: Report to congress. Washington, D.C: Children’s Bureau.

Whenan, R., Oxlad, M., & Lushington, K. (2009). Factors associated with foster carer well-being, satisfaction and intention to continue providing out-of-home care. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(7), 752-760. Retrieved from

Widom, C. (1991). The role of placement experiences in mediating the criminal consequences of early childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 195 – 209.

Youth Services Bureau. (2015). Strategic Priorities Plan. Retrieved from 2015_v2.pdf