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Endnotes

  1. Ontario Ministry of Finance. (2017). Ontario Population Projections Update, 2016-2041. Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Finance. Retrieved from http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/projections/projections2016-2041.pdf.
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  3. Métis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. (2014). A Collaborative Submission Regarding a Provincial Aboriginal Children and Youth Strategy. Ontario, Canada: Metis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. Retrieved from http://ofifc.org/sites/default/files/contentfiles/ACYS-Submission%202014-09-17.pdf.
  4. Muir, N. & Bohr, Y. (2014). Contemporary practice of traditional Aboriginal child rearing: A review. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 9(1), 66–79.
  5. Métis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. (2014). Submission to Ontario’s Minister of Children and Youth Services Regarding a Provincial Aboriginal Children and Youth Strategy. Ontario, Canada.
  6. Ontario Coalition of Aboriginal People, (2014). OCAP Summary Note on MCYS Strategy Engagement. Ontario, Canada.
  7. Muir, N. & Bohr, Y. (2014). "Contemporary practice of traditional Aboriginal child rearing: A review." First Peoples Child and Family Review 9(1), 66–79.
  8. Simard, E. (2017). Indigenous Wellbeing in the "Middle Years": A Thematic Outline. Ontario, Canada: Institute for Culturally Restorative Practices.
  9. Simard, E. (2017). Indigenous Wellbeing in the "Middle Years": A Thematic Outline. Ontario, Canada: Institute for Culturally Restorative Practices.
  10. Healey, G. K., Noah, J., & Mearns, C. (2016). The Eight Ujarait (Rocks) Model: Supporting Inuit Adolescent Mental Health With an Intervention Model Based on Inuit Ways of Knowing. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 11(1), 92-110.
  11. Ontario Native Women’s Association; Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres. (2017). Definitions of Indigenous Health and Wellbeing. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Native Women’s Association.
  12. Métis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. (2014). A Collaborative Submission Regarding a Provincial Aboriginal Children and Youth Strategy. Ontario, Canada: Metis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. Retrieved from http://ofifc.org/sites/default/files/content-files/ACYS-Submission%202014-09-17.pdf.
  13. Chiefs of Ontario and the Ontario First Nations Young Peoples Council. (2014) Submission for the Child and Family Services Act, Review 2014/15 and Aboriginal Children and Youth Strategy. Ontario, Canada: Chiefs of Ontario.
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  15. Métis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. (2014). A Collaborative Submission Regarding a Provincial Aboriginal Children and Youth Strategy. Ontario, Canada: Metis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres, Ontario Native Women’s Association. Retrieved from http://ofifc.org/sites/default/files/content-files/ACYS-Submission%202014-09-17.pdf.
  16. United Nations. (2008). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. New York: United Nations Economic and Social Council. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf.
  17. Simard, E. (2017). Indigenous Wellbeing in the "Middle Years": A Thematic Outline. Ontario, Canada: Institute for Culturally Restorative Practices.
  18. Korkman, M.; Lahti-Nuuttila, P.; Laasonen, M.; Kemp, S. L. & Holdnack, J. (2013). Neurocognitive Development in 5- to 16-year-old North American Children: A Crosssectional Study. Child Neuropsychology, 19(5), 516-39.
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  20. Gruber, R., & Cassoff, J. (2014). The Interplay Between Sleep and Emotion Regulation: Conceptual Framework, Empirical Evidence and Future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(11), 1-9.
  21. Armstrong, J. M., Ruttle, P. L., Klein, M. H., Essex, M. J., & Benca, R. M. (2014). Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and their Persistence with Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence. Sleep, 37(5), 901-909.
  22. Shanahan, L., Copeland, W. E., Angold, A., Bondy, C. L., & Costello, E. J. (2014). Sleep Problems are Predicted by Generalized Anxiety/Depression and Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(5), 550-558.
  23. Chaput, J. P., Gray, C. E., Poitras, V. J., Carson, V., Gruber, R., Olds, T., & Belanger, K. (2016). Systematic Review of the Relationships Between Sleep Duration and Health Indicators in School-Aged Children and Youth. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(6), S266-S282.
  24. Jetha MK, Segalowitz SJ. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  25. Lou, C.; Anthony, E.K.; Stone, S.; Vu, C.M.; Austin, M.J. (2006). Assessing Child and Youth Well-Being: Implications for Child Welfare Practice. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved from http://cssr.berkeley.edu/research_units/bassc/documents/BASSCChildWell-BeingFULLREPORT09.26.06.pdf.
  26. Korkman, M.; Lahti-Nuuttila, P., Laasonen, M.; Kemp, S.L.; Holdnack, J. (2013). Neurocognitive Development in 5- to 16-year-old North American children: A Crosssectional Study. Child Neuropsychology, 19(5), 516-39.
  27. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  28. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  29. Lou, C.; Anthony, E.K.; Stone, S.; Vu, C.M.; Austin, M.J. (2006). Assessing Child and Youth Well-Being: Implications for Child Welfare Practice. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved from http://cssr.berkeley.edu/research_units/bassc/documents/BASSCChildWell-BeingFULLREPORT09.26.06.pdf.
  30. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  31. Blume, L. B., & Rosario‐Perez, S. (2014). Middle Childhood. In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies (pp. 1442-6). Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons.
  32. Zembar, M. J., & Blume, L. B. (2009). Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  33. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  34. Holmbeck, G. N., Greenley, R. N. and Franks, E. A. (2004). Developmental Issues in Evidence-Based Practice. In P. M. Barrett and T. H. Ollendick (Ed.). In Handbook of Interventions that Work with Children and Adolescents: Prevention and Treatment (pp. 27-48). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753385.ch2.
  35. Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., & Farrington, D. P. (2010). On the Malleability of Self‐Control: Theoretical and Policy Implications Regarding a General Theory of Crime. Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 803-834.
  36. Steinberg, L. (2008). A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking. Developmental Review, 28(1), 78-106.
  37. Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Age Differences in Strategic Planning as Indexed by the Tower of London. Child development, 82(5), 1501-1517.
  38. Cauffman, E., Shulman, E. P., Steinberg, L., Claus, E., Banich, M. T., Graham, S., & Woolard, J. (2010). Age Differences in Affective Decision Making as Indexed by Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 193.
  39. Steinberg, L., Graham, S., O’Brien, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., & Banich, M. (2009). Age Differences in Future Orientation and Delay Discounting. Child Development, 80(1), 28-44.
  40. Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1): 211-224.
  41. Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. C. (2007). Age Differences in Resistance to Peer Influence. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1531.
  42. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  43. Lou, C.; Anthony, E.K.; Stone, S.; Vu, C.M.; Austin, M.J. (2006) Assessing Child and Youth Well-Being: Implications for Child Welfare Practice. California, USA: Bay Area Social Services Consortium, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved from http://cssr.berkeley.edu/research_units/bassc/documents/BASSCChildWell-BeingFULLREPORT09.26.06.pdf.
  44. MacLeod, K.B., Herold, M. (2016) Mental Health Issues in Child and Youth Development, Second edition: Updates and Focus on Middle Childhood. Ontario, Canada: Lutherwood.
  45. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  46. Nigg, J. T., & Nagel, B. J. (2016). Commentary: Risk taking, Impulsivity, and Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Development–commentary on Crone et al. 2016. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(3), 369-370.
  47. Janssen, I. (2015). Hyper-parenting is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity Among 7–12 Year Olds. Preventive Medicine, 73(2015), 55-59.
  48. Steeves, V. (2014). Young Canadians in a Wired World, Phase III: Experts or Amateurs? Gauging Young Canadians’ Digital Literacy Skills. Ottawa: MediaSmarts.
  49. Ramirez, J.; Ravinder, S.; Gadiwalla, S.; Christakis, D.; Ferguson, S. (2016). Consequences of Excessive Sensory Stimulation During Development on Addiction, Impulsivity, and Attention. Seattle, WA: Seattle Children’s Research Institute.
  50. Janssen, I., Boyce, W. F., & Pickett, W. (2012). Screen Time and Physical Violence in 10 to 16-Year-Old Canadian Youth. International Journal of Public Health, 57(2), 325-331.
  51. MacLeod, K.B., Herold, M. (2016) Mental Health Issues in Child and Youth Development, Second edition: Updates and Focus on Middle Childhood. Ontario, Canada: Lutherwood.
  52. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. (2016). Youth, Family and Interactive Technology. Ontario: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; Problem Gambling Institute of Ontario.
  53. Zembar, M. J., & Blume, L. B. (2009). Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  54. Lou, 2006 Lou, C.; Anthony, E.K.; Stone, S.; Vu, C.M.; Austin, M.J. (2006) Assessing Child and Youth Well-Being: Implications for Child Welfare Practice. California, USA: Bay Area Social Services Consortium, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Available: http://cssr.berkeley.edu/research_units/bassc/documents/BASSCChildWell-BeingFULLREPORT09.26.06.pdf.
  55. Lu, C. & Lowewyk, K. (2016). Updated and Refined Research Synthesis on the Physical and Movement Domains (Ages 6-25). Ontario: Brock University
  56. Ibid.
  57. Zembar, M. J., & Blume, L. B. (2009). Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  58. Lu, C. & Lowewyk, K. (2016). Updated and Refined Research Synthesis on the Physical and Movement Domains (Ages 6-25). Ontario: Brock University.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Scott, S.; Hovey, A.; Fleischer, L. & Walsh, A.M. (2016). Sexual Development Pathways for Children and Youth Ages 6 to 25 years: Pathways for Heterosexual and LGBT Children and Youth: A Research Synthesis. Ontario, Canada: Lakehead University.
  61. Zembar, M. J., & Blume, L. B. (2009). Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall..
  62. Ibid.
  63. Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2011). Middle Childhood Inside and Out: The Psychological and Social Worlds of Canadian Children Ages 9-12 - Full report. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. Retrieved from http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/documents/247/.
  64. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  65. Scott, S.; Hovey, A.; Fleischer, L. & Walsh, A.M. (2016). Sexual Development Pathways for Children and Youth Ages 6 to 25 years: Pathways for Heterosexual and LGBT Children and Youth: A Research Synthesis. Ontario, Canada: Lakehead University.
  66. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  67. Lu, C. & Lowewyk, K. (2016). Updated and Refined Research Synthesis on the Physical and Movement Domains (Ages 6-25). Ontario: Brock University.
  68. Ibid.
  69. National Childcare Accreditation Council. (2008). Supporting Children’s Development. Putting Children First, 28, (December), 3-5.
  70. Rootman, I., & Gordon-El-Bihbety, D. (2008). A Vision for a Health Literate Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Public Health Association.
  71. MacLeod, K.B., Herold, M. (2016) Mental Health Issues in Child and Youth Development, Second edition: Updates and Focus on Middle Childhood. Ontario, Canada: Lutherwood.
  72. Potvin-Boucher, J. T., & Malone, J. L. (2014). Facilitating Mental Health Literacy: Targeting Canadian First Nations Youth. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 48(3), 343.
  73. Lu, C. & Lowewyk, K. (2016). Updated and Refined Research Synthesis on the Physical and Movement Domains (Ages 6-25). Ontario: Brock University.
  74. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  75. MacLeod, K.B., Herold, M. (2016) Mental Health Issues in Child and Youth Development, Second edition: Updates and Focus on Middle Childhood. Ontario, Canada: Lutherwood.
  76. Thomas L, Lu C. (2010). Differing Perspectives of Health Literacy: School Health Education, Health Care, and Public Health. Toronto, Canada: Forum of Council of University Professors and Researchers in Physical and Health Education (PHE/CUPR). Retrieved from: http://ojs.acadiau.ca/index.php/phenex/article/viewFile/1411/1184.
  77. Simard, E. (2017). Indigenous Wellbeing in the "Middle Years": A Thematic Outline. Ontario, Canada: Institute for Culturally Restorative Practices.
  78. Collings, P., Marten, M. G., Pearce, T., & Young, A. G. (2016). Country Food Sharing Networks, household Structure, and Implications for Understanding Food Insecurity in Arctic Canada. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 55(1), 30-49.
  79. Hill, Rosemary, and Williams, Liana (2009) Indigenous Natural Resource Management: Overcoming Marginalisation Produced in Australia’s Current NRM Model. In Lane, M., Robinson, C., & Taylor, B. (eds.), Contested Country: Local and Regional Natural Resources Management in Australia (pp. 161-178). Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
  80. Tang, K., & Jardine, C. G. (2016). Our Way of Life: Importance of Indigenous Culture and Tradition to Physical Activity Practices. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 11(1), 211-227.
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  84. Ontario Native Women’s Association; Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres. (2017). Definitions of Indigenous Health and Wellbeing. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Native Women’s Association.
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  86. Ibid
  87. Canadian Heritage. (2013). Sport Participation 2010 Research Paper. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Heritage. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2013/pc-ch/CH24-1-2012-eng.pdf.
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  90. Ontario Healthy Children Panel. (2013). No Time to Wait: The Healthy Children Strategy. (Catalogue No. 017308). Ontario: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/healthy_kids/healthy_kids.pdf.
  91. MacLeod, K.B., Herold, M. (2016) Mental Health Issues in Child and Youth Development, Second edition: Updates and Focus on Middle Childhood. Ontario, Canada: Lutherwood.
  92. Keyes, K. M., Maslowsky, J., Hamilton, A., & Schulenberg, J. (2015). The Great Sleep Recession: Changes in Sleep Duration Among US Adolescents, 1991–2012. Pediatrics, 135(3), 460-468.
  93. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University
  94. Gruber, R., & Cassoff, J. (2014). The Interplay Between Sleep and Emotion Regulation: Conceptual Framework Empirical Evidence and Future Directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(11), 1-9.
  95. Carter, B., Rees, P., Hale, L., Bhattacharjee, D., & Paradkar, M. S. (2016). Association Between Portable Screen-based Media Device Access or Use and Sleep Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 170(12), 1202-1208.
  96. Scott, S.; Hovey, A.; Fleischer, L. & Walsh, A.M. (2016). Sexual Development Pathways for Children and Youth Ages 6 to 25 years: Pathways for Heterosexual and LGBT Children and Youth: A Research Synthesis. Ontario, Canada: Lakehead University.
  97. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  98. Schonert-Reichl, K. (2011). Middle Childhood Inside and Out: The Psychological and Social Worlds of Canadian Children Ages 9-12 - Full report. Burnaby, British Columbia: University of British Columbia, 2011a. Retrieved from http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/documents/247/.
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  108. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  109. Côté, J.E. (2016). The Developmental Pathways of Self/Identity and Moral Reasoning: Middle Childhood Through Late Adolescence. Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.
  110. Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2003). Gendered Racial Identity and Involvement with School. Self and Identity, 2(4), 307-324.
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  114. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  115. Ibid.
  116. Holden, G. (1992). The Relationship of Self-Efficacy Appraisals to Subsequent Health Related Outcomes: A Meta-analysis. Social Work in Health Care, 16(1), 53-93.
  117. Klassen, R.M. (2006). Too much confidence. In Pajares, F. & Urdan, T. (Ed.), Self-efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp. 181-200). Greenwich, CT, USA: Information Age Publishing.
  118. Côté, J.E. (2016). The Developmental Pathways of Self/Identity and Moral Reasoning: Middle Childhood Through Late Adolescence. Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.
  119. Zembar, M. J., & Blume, L. B. (2009). Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  120. Schonert-Reichl, K. (2011). Middle Childhood Inside and Out: The Psychological and Social Worlds of Canadian Children Ages 9-12 - Full report. Burnaby, British Columbia: University of British Columbia. Retrieved from http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/documents/247/.
  121. State of Victoria Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2011). Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework - For all Children from Birth to Eight Years. Melbourne, Australia: State of Victoria. Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/providers/edcare/veyldframework.pdf.
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  126. Côté, J.E. (2016). The Developmental Pathways of Self/Identity and Moral Reasoning: Middle Childhood Through Late Adolescence. Ontario, Canada: University of Western Ontario.
  127. Ibid.
  128. State of Victoria Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2011). Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework - For all Children from Birth to Eight Years. Melbourne, Australia: State of Victoria. Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/providers/edcare/veyldframework.pdf.
  129. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2007). Child Wellbeing and Income Inequality in Rich Societies: Ecological Cross Sectional Study. BMJ, 335(7629), 1080.
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  131. UNICEF Canada. (2016). UNICEF Report Card 13: Canadian Companion, Fairness for Children: A League Table of Inequality in Child Well-Being in Rich Countries. Toronto, Canada: UNICEF. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.ca/sites/default/files/imce_uploads/images/advocacy/rc/irc13_canadian_companion_en_sp_new_.pdf.
  132. Rawana, J.S.; Flett, G.L. ; Basset-Gunter, R.; Fraser-Thomas, J.; Levin, R.L.; Mcphie, M., et al. (2016). A Systematic Review of Emotion Regulation in Middle Childhood: Executive Summary and Final Report. Ontario, Canada: York University.
  133. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  134. Blair, B. L., Perry, N. B., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2015). Identifying Developmental Cascades Among Differentiated Dimensions of Social Competence and Emotion Regulation. Developmental Psychology, 51(8), 1062.
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  136. Rawana, J.S.; Flett, G.L.; Basset-Gunter, R.; Fraser-Thomas, J.; Levin, R.L.; Mcphie, M., et al. (2016). A Systematic Review of Emotion Regulation in Middle Childhood: Executive Summary and Final Report. Ontario, Canada: York University.
  137. Jetha. M.K., Segalowitz. S.J. (2016). Brain Development from Middle Childhood to Young Adulthood and the Implications for Behaviour. Canada: Cape Breton University.
  138. Ibid.
  139. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
  140. Ibid.
  141. Tilleczek K. (2016). Mental Health in the Middle Years (Age 6 -12): Intersections and Directions. Canada: University of Prince Edward Island.
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