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Endnotes

1  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

2  Ministry of Finance. 2012. "Ontario Population Estimates." Last modified June 15, 2012. http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/projections/.

3  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

4 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

5  Ministry of Finance. 2012. "Ontario Population Estimates." Last modified June 15, 2012. http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/projections/.

6  Ibid.

7  Statistics Canada. 2012. "Labour Force Survey."

8  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2012. "Education at a Glance, 2012: OECD Indicators." http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance_19991487.

9  Ontario Trillium Foundation. 2011. "Diversity in Ontario: A Community Profile." http://www.otf.ca/en/knowledgeSharingCentre/div_ontario.asp.

10  Ibid.

11  Statistics Canada. 2006. "Census of Population- Catalogue No. 97-557-XCB2006013."

12  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

13  Freeman, J.,  King, M., Al-Haque, R., and Pickett, W. 2012. "Healthy and Health-Related Behaviours Among Young People: Ontario." http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/healthyschools/HBSCReportJan2013.pdf.

14  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2006. "A Shared Responsibility: Ontario’s Policy Framework for Child and Youth Mental Health." Last modified October 26, 2011. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/specialneeds/mentalhealth/shared_responsibility.aspx.

15  Vézina, M., and Crompton, S. 2012. "Volunteering in Canada." Last modified April 16, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2012001/article/11638-eng.htm.

16  Imagine Canada. 2010. "Giving and Volunteering in Ontario: Findings from the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating." http://www.imaginecanada.ca/files/www/en/giving/reports/ontario_report_en_2007_21122010.pdf.

17  National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts. 2007. "Ready for the future? Young people’s views on work and careers". http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/ready-for-the-future.pdf.

18  Statistics Canada. 2012. "Labour Force Survey."

19  Ibid.

20  Standing Committee on Health. 2007. "Healthy Weights for Healthy Kids." http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=2795145&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=39&Ses=1.

21  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2006. "A Shared Responsibility: Ontario’s Policy Framework for Child and Youth Mental Health." Last modified October 26, 2011. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/specialneeds/mentalhealth/shared_responsibility.aspx.

22  Clark, W. 2009. "Delayed transitions of young adults." Last modified January 2, 2009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2007004/10311-eng.htm.

23  Statistics Canada. 2013. "Living arrangements of young adults aged 20 to 29." Last modified January 9, 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-312-x/98-312-x2011003_3-eng.cfm.

24  Statistics Canada. 2013. "Fifty years of families: 1961 to 2011." Last modified January 9, 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-312-x/98-312-x2011003_1-eng.cfm.

25  Canadian Index of Wellbeing. 2010. "Caught in the Time Crunch: Time Use, Leisure and Culture in Canada." https://uwaterloo.ca/canadian-index-wellbeing/sites/ca.canadian-index-wellbeing/files/uploads/files/Caught_in_the_Time_Crunch_0.pdf.

26  National Council on Welfare. 2012. "Poverty profile: Special edition. A snapshot of racialized poverty in Canada." http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/cnb-ncw/HS51-2-2012S-eng.pdf.

27  Ontario Human Rights Commission. 2003. "Paying the price: the human cost of racial profiling. Racial Profiling Inquiry Report." Last modified October 21, 2003. http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/book/export/html/2472.

28 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

29  Oreopoulos, P. 2009. "Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labour market? A field experiment with six thousand resumes." National Bureau of Economic Research.  http://www.hireimmigrantsottawa.ca/downloads/WhyDoSkilledImmigrantsStruggleintheLaborMarket.pdf.

30  Magalhaes, L., Carrasco, C., and Gastaldo, D. 2011."Undocumented migrants in Canada: A scope literature review on health, access to services, and working conditions." Journal of Immigrant Minor Health 12, no. 1: 132-151.

31  Statistics Canada. 2006. "2006 Census: Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations." Last modified April 5, 2011. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-558/p4-eng.cfm.

32  The Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples. 2003. "Urban Aboriginal Youth: An Action Plan for Change." http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/372/abor/rep/repfinoct03-e.pdf.

33  Statistics Canada. 2008. "Participation and Activity Limitation Survey of 2006: A Profile of Education for Children with Disabilities in Canada." http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-628-x/89-628-x2008004-eng.htm.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36  Office of the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. 2012. "My Real Life Book: Report from the Youth Leaving Care Hearings." http://www.provincialadvocate.on.ca/documents/en/ylc/YLC_REPORT_ENG.pdf.

37  Kufeldt, K. 2003. "Graduates of Guardianship Care:  Outcomes in Early Adulthood." In K. Kufeldt and B. McKenzie (Eds.), Child Welfare: Connecting Research, Policy and Practice.Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press.

38  Lindsey, D. 1994. The Welfare of Children. New York:  Oxford University Press.

39  Martin, F. 1995. "Tales of Transition:  Gender Differences in Youth Leaving Care." PhD dissertation. University of Bristol.

40  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2013. "Blueprint for Fundamental Change to Ontario’s Child Welfare System: Final Report of the Youth Leaving Care Working Group." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/topics/childrensaid/youthleavingcare.pdf.

41  Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies.2008. "Gateway to Success: Educational Status of Crown Wards and Former Crown Wards aged 16 – 21." Toronto: OACAS.

42  Office of Francophone Affairs. 2009. "Francophone Youth in Ontario – Highlights." Last modified May 3, 2012. http://www.ofa.gov.on.ca/en/franco-stats-youth-2009.html?p=highlights.

43  Office of Francophone Affairs. 2008. "Accent on Youth: Ontario Government’s Francophone Youth Strategy." http://www.ofa.gov.on.ca/docs/jeunesse_report.pdf.

44  Ibid.

45  Statistics Canada. 2006. "2006 Census of Population - Catalogue No. 97-558-XCB2006006."

46  Best Start Resource Centre. 2010. "How to Reach Rural Populations." http://www.beststart.org/resources/howto/pdf/rural_manual_fnl_web.pdf.

47  Rural Ontario Municipal Association. 2011. "A Voice for Rural and Northern Ontario." http://www.roma.on.ca/wcm/documents/ROMA/Reports/2011AVoiceforRuralNorthernOntario2011Oct.pdf.

48  Sauvé, R. 2012. "The Current State of Canadian Family Finances 2011-2012 Report." Last modified March 22, 2012. http://www.vanierinstitute.ca/modules/news/newsitem.php?ItemId=421#.UVyUzKLIFKR.

49  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Breaking the Cycle: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy 2012 Annual Report." Last modified December 13, 2012. http://ontario.ca/povertyreduction.

50  American Psychological Association. 2013. "Effects of Poverty, Hunger and Homelessness on Children and Youth." http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx?item=2.

51 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

52  United Way Toronto. 2008. "Toronto’s Youth Serving System: Fragmented Paths to Youth Development." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/TorontosYouthServingSystem-fullreport.pdf.

53  The Laidlaw Foundation. 2013. "Mission/Vision/Values." http://laidlawfdn.org/about/mission-vision-values/.

54  Commission on the Reform of Ontario's Public Services. 2012. "Public Services for Ontarians: A Path to Sustainability and Excellence." Last modified February 15, 2012. http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/reformcommission.

55  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2012. "Ontario’s Action Plan for Health Care." http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/ms/ecfa/healthy_change/docs/rep_healthychange.pdf.

56  Bloom, D. E. 2012, March. "Youth in the Balance." Finance and Development 49, no. 1 http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2012/03/bloom.htm.

57  Statistics Canada. 2009. "Canadian Health Measures Survey."

58  World Health Organization. 2013. "Obesity and overweight." Last modified March 2013. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.

59  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2012. "Youth Foundation Research: A Comprehensive Study of the Health Attitudes and Behaviours of Ontario Youth 12-29 years old."

60  Statistics Canada. 2012. "Canadian Community Health Survey."

61 Statistics Canada. 2003. "Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being." 

62  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2012. "Youth Foundation Research: A Comprehensive Study of the Health Attitudes and Behaviours of Ontario Youth 12-29 years old."

63  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2006. "A Shared Responsibility: Ontario’s Policy Framework for Child and Youth Mental Health." Last modified October 26, 2011. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/specialneeds/mentalhealth/shared_responsibility.aspx.

64  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2012. "Youth Foundation Research: A Comprehensive Study of the Health Attitudes and Behaviours of Ontario Youth 12-29 years old."

65  Statistics Canada. 2003. "Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being."

66  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2010. "Ontario’s Action Plan For Healthy Eating And Active Living." Last modified April 29, 2011. http://www.mhp.gov.on.ca/en/heal/default.asp.

67  Ibid.

68  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

69  Public Health Agency of Canada. 2013. "Physical Activity." http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/pa-ap/index-eng.php.

70  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2010. "Ontario’s Action Plan For Healthy Eating And Active Living." Last modified April 29, 2011. http://www.mhp.gov.on.ca/en/heal/default.asp.

71  Ibid.

72  Raphael, D. 2009. "Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives, 2nd edition." Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

73 Regent Park Community Health Centre. 2008. "Regent Park Youth Health Action Project Research Report." http://www.regentparkchc.org/sites/default/files/YHAP-Final-layout.pdf.

74  Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., and Ustun, T. B. 2007. "Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature," Current Opinions on Psychiatry 20, no. 4: 359-364.

75  Singh, S. P. 2009. "Transition of care from child to adult mental health services: the great divide," Current Opinions on Psychiatry 22, no. 4: 386-390.

76  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

77  Public Health Agency of Canada. 2012. Analysis of Statistics Canada mortality data. Ottawa: PHAC.

78  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. "Injury prevention & control: Data & statistics (WISQARS)." Last modified December 17, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html.

79  Hill, R. M., Castellanos, D., and Pettit, J. W. 2011. "Suicide-related behaviors and anxiety in children and adolescents: A review." Clinical Psychology Review 31: 1133–1144.

80  Health Canada. 2006. "First Nations and Inuit Health: Suicide Prevention." Last modified March 6, 2006. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/promotion/suicide/index-eng.php.

81 Ibid.

82  Waddell, C., Offord, D., Shepherd, C. A.,   Hua, J. M.,  and McEwan, K. 2002. "Child psychiatric epidemiology and Canadian public policy-making: The state of the science and the art of the possible." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 47: 825–832.

83  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2011. "Open Minds, Healthy Minds: Ontario’s Comprehensive Mental Health and Addictions Strategy." http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/mental_health2011/mentalhealth_rep2011.pdf.

84 Ibid.

85  Merikangas, K. R., Nakamura, E. F.,  Kessler, R. C. 2009. "Epidemiology of mental disorders in children and adolescents." Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 11, no. 1: 7-20.

86  Geres, K. 2010.  "Using digital narratives with refugee and immigrant youth to promote literacy, healing, and hope." Last modified August 2010. http://www.mcdowellfoundation.ca/main_mcdowell/projects/research_rep/200_using_digital_narratives.pdf.

87  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2011. "Open Minds, Healthy Minds: Ontario’s Comprehensive Mental Health and Addictions Strategy." http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/mental_health2011/mentalhealth_rep2011.pdf.

88  Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. 2012. "Mental Health and Addictions Statistics." http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/newsroom/for_reporters/Pages/addictionmentalhealthstatistics.aspx.

89  Ratnasingham, S., Cairney, J., Rehm, J., Manson, H., and Kurdyak, P. A. 2012. "Opening Eyes, Opening Minds: The Ontario Burden of Mental Illness and Addictions Report. An ICES/PHO Report." Toronto: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and Public Health Ontario.

90  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

91  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

92  Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 2012. "Youth Foundation Research: A Comprehensive Study of the Health Attitudes and Behaviours of Ontario Youth 12-29 years old."

93  Ibid.

94  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

95  Centre for Mental Health and Addictions. 2011."Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey." http://www.camh.ca/en/research/news_and_publications/ontario-student-drug-use-and-health-survey/Pages/default.aspx.

96  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

97 Statistics Canada. 2013. "Fifty years of families in Canada: 1961 to 2011." Last modified January 9, 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-312-x/98-312-x2011003_1-eng.cfm.

98 Ibid.

99  Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2013. "Canadians in Context - Households and Families." Last modified May 15, 2013. http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=37.

100  The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2007. "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries." Innocenti Report Card 7, p. 24 and 43. Florence,Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

101  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

102  Ibid.

103  comScore. 2012. "Canada Digital Future in Focus 2012: Key Insights from 2011 and What They Mean for the Coming Year." Last modified March 1, 2012. http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Presentations_and_Whitepapers/2012/2012_Canada_Digital_Future_in_Focus.

104  Campaign 2000. 2009. "2009 Report Card on Child and Family Poverty in Canada: 1989-2009. Keep the Promise: Make Canada Poverty-Free." http://www.campaign2000.ca/reportCards/national/2009EnglishC2000NationalReportCard.pdf.

105  Growing Healthy Canadians. 1999. "Transition to Adolescence:  A Secure and Integrated Self-Identity." http://www.growinghealthykids.com/english/transitions/adolescence/secure_slf_id_pgs/secure_par.html.

106 Ontario Community Integration Network.  2011. "Resources for Working with Newcomer Youth." http://www.cin-ric.ca/PDFs/Resources_for_Working_with_NC_Youth.pdf.

107  Centre for Mental Health and Addictions. 2011. "Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey." http://www.camh.ca/en/research/news_and_publications/ontario-student-drug-use-and-health-survey/Pages/default.aspx.

108  Covenant House. 2012. "Facts and stats: Report on youth homelessness." https://www.covenanthouse.ca/homeless-youth/facts-and-stats.

109 DuBois, D., and Silverthorn, N. 2005. "Natural Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Health: Evidence from a National Study." American Journal of Public Health, 95, no.3: 518-524.

110  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

111 DuBois, D., and Silverthorn, N. 2005. "Natural Mentoring Relationships and Adolescent Health: Evidence from a National Study." American Journal of Public Health, 95, no. 3 : 518-524.

112  Collaborative Community Health Research Centre, University of Victoria. 2002. "Research Review of Best Practices for Provision of Youth Services." http://www.mcf.gov.bc.ca/youth/pdf/best_practices_provision_of_youth_services.pdf.

113  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2013. "Blueprint for Fundamental Change to Ontario’s Child Welfare System: Final Report of the Youth Leaving Care Working Group." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/topics/childrensaid/youthleavingcare.pdf.

114  Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. 2013. "Youth mentoring linked to many positive effects in children, new CAMH and Big Brothers Big Sisters research shows." Last modified January 15, 2013. http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/newsroom/news_releases_media_advisories_and_backgrounders/current_year/Pages/Big-Brothers-Big-Sisters-launches-100-Year-celebration-with-Largest-Mentoring-Study-Ever-in-Canada.aspx.

115  MENTOR. 2009. "Elements of Effective Practice for mentoring." 3rd edition. http://www.mentoring.org/downloads/mentoring_1222.pdf

116 National Youth Leadership Network. 2011. "Adult Allies." http://www.nyln.org/resources-3/information-clearinghouse/orc-adult-allies/.

117 The Freechild Project. 2008. "Adult Allies to Young People." http://www.freechild.org/allies_of_youth.htm.

118 Kids As Self Advocates (KASA).  "Who is an Adult Ally?" Accessed April 24, 2013 from http://fvkasa.org/resources/files/group-ally.pdf.

119  McKinsey & Company. 2010. "How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better." Last modified November 2010. http://mckinseyonsociety.com/how-the-worlds-most-improved-school-systems-keep-getting-better.

120  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Breaking the Cycle: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy – Measures, Indicators and Outcomes." Last modified December 13, 2012. http://ontario.ca/povertyreduction.

121  Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). 2009. "PISA 2009 key findings." http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/pisa2009/pisa2009keyfindings.htm.

122 Statistics Canada. 2010. "Trends in Dropout Rates and the Labour Market Outcomes of Young Dropouts".  http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/2010004/article/11339-eng.htm.

123  Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2010. "Employment Ontario: Program Guide." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/brochure/ProgrameGuide2010.pdf.

124  Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge". http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningOntarioPSE.pdf.

125  Fullan, M. 2013. "Great to Excellent: Launching the Next Stage of Ontario’s Education Agenda." http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/FullanReport_EN_07.pdf.

126  Ibid.

127  The Conference Board of Canada. 2013. "How Canada Performs." http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/default.aspx.

128 Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningOntarioPSE.pdf.

129  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

130  Ibid.

131 Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningOntarioPSE.pdf.

132  Ministry of Education. 2012. "Student Success Strategy/Learning to 18." Last modified August 3, 2012. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/teachers/studentsuccess/strategy.html.

133 Jenson, J., Taylor, N., and Fisher, S. 2011. "Critical Review and Analysis of the Issue of Skills, Technology and Learning." http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/research/jenson_reporteng.pdf.

134 Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningOntarioPSE.pdf.

135 Ministry of Education. 2012. "About Ontario's e-Learning Strategy." Last modified December 12, 2012. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/elearning/strategy.html.

136 Cook-Ritchie, R. 2002. "Falling through the cracks: Researching literacy needs of youth ages 16-18." Last modified January 1, 2002. http://workforceplanninghamilton.ca/publications/134.

137Statistics Canada. 2006. "Census 2006."

138  Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Strengthening Ontario’s Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningOntarioPSE.pdf.

139  Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.2012. "Apprenticeship Training." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/apprentices/app_train.html.

140 Jobs and Prosperity Council. 2012. "Advantage Ontario." http://docs.ontario.ca/documents/340-jpc-advantageontarioenglish.html#document/p1.

141 Tal, B. 2012. "CIBC Economics: The Haves and Have Nots of Canada’s Labour Market." http://research.cibcwm.com/economic_public/download/if_2012-1203.pdf.

142 Ministry of Finance. 2012. "2012 Ontario Budget: Strong Action for Ontario." Last modified April 10, 2012. http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/budget/ontariobudgets/2012/.

143  Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012. "Apprenticeship Training." http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/apprentices/app_train.html.

144  Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2013. "Learning - Educational Attainment." Last modified May 15, 2013. http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=29.

145 Zhao, H. 2012. "Postsecondary Education Participation of Under-Represented Groups in Ontario: Evidence from the SLID Data." Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

146  Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance. 2011. "Breaking Barriers: A Strategy for Equal Access to Higher Education." http://www.ousa.ca/dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Breaking-Barriers.pdf.

147 Sattler, P., & Peters, J. 2012. "Work-Integrated Learning and Postsecondary Graduates: The Perspective of Ontario Employers." Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

148  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

149  Service Canada. 2012. "Ontario Labour Market Bulletin - November 2012." Last modified December 18, 2012. http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/on/offices/2012/11-olmb-nov.shtml.

150 European Commission. 2012. "Policy Brief on Youth Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe." http://www.oecd.org/regional/leed/Youth%20Policy%20Brief.pdf.

151 Statistics Canada. 2006. "Financing Profile: Young Entrepreneurs."

152 Ibid.

153 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

154 Nelson, J., and O'Donnell, L. 2012. Approaches to Supporting Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training: a Review (NFER Research Programme: From Education to Employment). Slough: NFER.

155 Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2010. "Disability in Canada: A 2006 Profile." http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/rhdcc-hrsdc/HS64-11-2010-eng.pdf.

156 Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2012.

157 Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2013. "Work - Unemployment Rate." http://www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=16.

158 Fearon, G., and Wald, S. 2011. "The Earnings Gap between Black and White Workers in Canada: Evidence from the 2006 Census." Industrial Relations 66. no. 3 :324-348.

159 Galabuzi, G. 2001. "Canada’s Creeping Economic Apartheid: Economic Segregation and Social Marginalisation of Racialised Groups." http://www.socialjustice.org/pdfs/economicapartheid.pdf.

160 Statistics Canada. 2010. "Trends in Dropout Rates and the Labour Market Outcomes of Young Dropouts." Last modified November 3, 2010. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/2010004/article/11339-eng.htm.

161  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

162 Jobs and Prosperity Council. 2012. "Advantage Ontario." http://docs.ontario.ca/documents/340-jpc-advantageontarioenglish.html#document/p1.

163 United Way Toronto. 2012. "Youth Impact Plan." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/UWT2012YouthImpactPlan.pdf.

164 Jobs and Prosperity Council. 2012. "Advantage Ontario." http://docs.ontario.ca/documents/340-jpc-advantageontarioenglish.html#document/p1.

165 Ibid.

166 Ontario Network of Entrepreneurs. "Starting a Business." http://www.onebusiness.ca/starting-business.

167  Institute for Work and Health. 2009. "Newness" and the risk of occupational injury. Last modified May 2009. http://www.iwh.on.ca/system/files/documents/iwh_briefing_newness_2009.pdf.

168 Live Safe! Work Smart! 2010. "Young Worker Health and Safety: Fast Facts from the Institute for Work & Health." Last modified April 9, 2010. http://www.livesafeworksmart.net/english/fast_facts/index.htm.

169 Ministry of Labour, 2007.

170 Live Safe! Work Smart! 2010. "Young Worker Health and Safety: Fast Facts from the Institute for Work & Health." Last modified April 9, 2010. http://www.livesafeworksmart.net/english/fast_facts/index.htm.

171 Breslin, F. C. 2008. "Educational status and work injury among young people." Canadian Journal of Public Health 99, no. 2 :121-124.

172 Government of Ontario. 2012. "About Ontario: People & Culture." Last modified January 24, 2013. http://www.ontarioimmigration.ca/en/about/OI_ABOUT_PEOPLE.html.

173 Statistics Canada. 2012. "Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2011." Last modified July 24, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2012001/article/11692-eng.htm.

174 Safe Schools Action Team. 2005."Shaping Safe Schools: A bullying prevention action plan." http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/healthysafeschools/actionteam/shaping.pdf.

175 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

176 Collaborative Community Health Research Centre, University of Victoria. 2002. "Research Review of Best Practices for Provision of Youth Services." http://www.mcf.gov.bc.ca/youth/pdf/best_practices_provision_of_youth_services.pdf.

177 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

178 Ministry of Community and Social Services. 2013. "Integrated Accessibility Standards Regulation: Requirements." Last modified April 8, 2013. http://www.mcss.gov.on.ca/en/mcss/programs/accessibility/info_sheets/index.aspx.

179  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

180 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. 2009. "Research Highlight."

181 Statistics Canada. 2006. "Census 2006."

182 Lawson, A., Gardiner, S., Johansson, B., MacLaurin, B., Giray, E., & Crockford, T. 2006. "Addressing the effects of child maltreatment through the lens of domestic violence."CECW Research in Brief #1. Toronto, Canada: Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto.

183 PREVNet. 2012. "Bullying Facts and Myths." http://prevnet.ca/BullyingFacts/FactsandMyths/tabid/121/Default.aspx.

184 Ibid.

185 Public Safety Canada. 2011. "Bullying Prevention: Nature and Extent of Bullying in Canada." Last modified July 18, 2011. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cp/res/2008-bp-01-eng.aspx.

186 UNICEF Canada. 2011. "Child Safety Online: global challenges and strategies." http://www.unicef.ca/en/article/child-safety-online-global-challenges-and-strategies.

187 Ministry of Education. 2007. "Get Connected, Get in the Know: Online Respect and Responsibility."http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/safeschools/pdfs/onlinerespect.pdf.

188  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

189 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

190 Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. 2009. "Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action." http://www.mcscs.jus.gov.on.ca/stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@com/documents/webasset/ec157730.pdf.

191 Bonnell, J., and Zizys, T. 2005. "Best Practices for Youth Programs." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/YouthBestPractices-FinalPublicReport.pdf.

192 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

193 Institute for the Prevention of Crime. 2009. "Making Cities Safer: Action Briefs for Municipal Stakeholders."

194 Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. 2009. "Crime Prevention in Ontario: A Framework for Action." http://www.mcscs.jus.gov.on.ca/stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@com/documents/webasset/ec157730.pdf.

195 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

196 Cole, D., and Gittens, M. 1995. Report of the Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System. Toronto : Queen's Printer for Ontario.

197 Ibid.

198 Statistics Canada. 2012. "Uniform Crime Reporting Survey."

199 Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2012.

200 The City of Calgary. 2004. "A Guide to Youth Friendly Practices: Youth Engagement." http://sharepoint.agriculture.purdue.edu/ces/INadolescenthealth/Shared%20Documents/meet_guide_youth_friendly_practices.pdf.

201 Imagine Canada. 2010. "Giving and Volunteering in Ontario: Findings from the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating." http://www.imaginecanada.ca/files/www/en/giving/reports/ontario_report_en_2007_21122010.pdf.

202 Vézina, M., and Crompton, S. 2012. "Volunteering in Canada." Last modified April 16, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2012001/article/11638-eng.htm.

203 Elections Canada. 2012. "Report on the Evaluations of the 41st General Election of May 2, 2011." Last modified February 18, 2013.  http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=rec/eval/pes2011/ege&document=p1&lang=e.

204 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

205 Prensky, M. 2009. "H. sapiens digital: From digital immigrants and digital natives to digital wisdom." Innovate 5, no. 3. http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=705

206 United Way Toronto. 2012. "Youth Impact Plan." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/UWT2012YouthImpactPlan.pdf.

207 Ibid.

208 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1989. "Convention on the Rights of the Child."http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx.

209 Elections Canada. 2003. "Youth Participation in Elections." Electoral Insight 5, no. 2..

210 United Way Toronto. 2012. "Youth Impact Plan." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/UWT2012YouthImpactPlan.pdf.

211 Elections Canada. 2011. "National Youth Survey Report." http://www.elections.ca/res/rec/part/nysr/nysr-e.pdf.

212 Ibid.

213 The City of Calgary. 2004. "A Guide to Youth Friendly Practices: Youth Engagement."http://sharepoint.agriculture.purdue.edu/ces/INadolescenthealth/SharedDocuments/meet_guide_youth_friendly_practices.pdf.

214 Minister’s Student Advisory Council. 2009. "9 Student Voice indicators."http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/students/speakup/9IndicatorsEn.pdf.

215 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2008. "Breaking the Cycle: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy." Last modified November 22, 2010. http://ontario.ca/povertyreduction.

216 Lopez, M. H., Levine, P., Both, D., Kiesa, A., Kirby, E., and Marcelo, K. 2006. "The 2006 civic and political health of the nation: A detailed look at how youth participate in politics and communities." College Park, MD: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE)http://www.civicyouth.org/PopUps/2006_CPHS_Report_update.pdf.

217 Minister’s Student Advisory Council. 2009. "9 Student Voice indicators." http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/students/speakup/9IndicatorsEn.pdf.

218 United Way Toronto. 2012. "Youth Impact Plan." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/UWT2012YouthImpactPlan.pdf

219 Vézina, M., and Crompton, S. 2012. "Volunteering in Canada." Last modified April 16, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2012001/article/11638-eng.htm.

220  Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

221 Ginwright, S., and James, T. 2003. "From assets to agents of change: Social justice, organizing, and youth development." New Directions for Youth Development, 96, no. 2 : 27-46.

222 United Way Toronto. 2012. "Youth Impact Plan." http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/downloads/whatWeDo/reports/UWT2012YouthImpactPlan.pdf.

223 Elections Canada. 2003."Youth Participation in Elections." Electoral Insight 5, no. 2. http://www.elections.ca/res/eim/insight0703_e.pdf.

224 Jobs and Prosperity Council. 2012. "Advantage Ontario." http://docs.ontario.ca/documents/340-jpc-advantageontarioenglish.html#document/p1.

225 McMurtry, R., and Curling, A. 2008. "The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Vol. 1 – Findings, Analysis and Conclusions." http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/english/documents/topics/youthandthelaw/rootsofyouthviolence-vol1.pdf.

226 Play Works: The Ontario Partnership for Active and Engaged Youth. 2013. "Youth Friendly Communities." http://playworkspartnership.ca/youth-friendly-communities.

227 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2012. "Stepping Stones: A Resource on Youth Development." Last modified June 13, 2012. http://www.ontario.ca/steppingstones.

228 Ministry of Children and Youth Services. 2006. "A Shared Responsibility: Ontario’s Policy Framework for Child and Youth Mental Health." Last modified October 26, 2011. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/specialneeds/mentalhealth/shared_responsibility.aspx.

 

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