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1  Levy, J., Ansara, D., & Stover, A. 2013. "Racialization and health inequities in Toronto." Toronto Public Health.

2  Government of Canada. 2013. "What makes Canadians healthy or unhealthy?" Retrieved from

3  Young, T. K. et al. 2000. "Childhood obesity in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes." Journal of Pediatrics, 136(3), 365–369.

4 Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. 2010. "Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40.

5  Ratey, J. J., & Hagerman, E. 2008. Spark: The revolutionary new science of exercise and the brain. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company; Castrechin, E. S., & London, R. A. 2011. "A longitudinal examination of the link between youth physical fitness and academic achievement." Journal of School Health, 81(7), 400–408; Davis, C. L. et al. 2011. "Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized controlled trial." Health Psychology, 30(1), 91–98.

6  Government of Canada. 2006. "The human face of mental health and mental illness in Canada 2006." Retrieved from

7  Health Canada. 2014. Summary of results of the Youth Smoking Survey 2012–2013. Retrieved from

8  Rehm, J., Baliunas, D., Brochu, S., Fischer B, Gnam W, Patra J, Taylor, B. 2006. The costs of substance abuse in Canada 2002. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Retrieved from Library/ccsa-011332-2006.pdf.>

9  World Health Organization. 2015. "Sexual and reproductive health." Retrieved from

10  Gaetz, S. A. 2014. Coming of age: Reimagining the response to youth homelessness in Canada. Toronto, ON: The Canadian Homelessness Research Network Press.

11  Ibid.

12  Abramovich, I. A. 2012. "No safe place to go: LGBTQ youth homelessness in Canada." Canadian Journal of Family and Youth, 4(1), 29–51.

13  Goering, P. et al. 2014. National At Home/Chez Soi Final Report. Calgary, AB: Mental Health Commission of Canada. Retrieved from

14  Belanger, Y. 2013. "Homelessness, urban Aboriginal People, and the need for a national enumeration." Aboriginal Policy Studies, 2(2), 4–33.

15  Ontario Ministry of Education. 2015. "Student Success/Learning to 18." Retrieved from

16  Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2015. "Ontario increasing funding for postsecondary students with disabilities [Press release]. Retrieved from

17  Ibid.

18  Indspire. 2015. Creating positive outcomes: Graduation and employment rates of Indspire’s financial award recipients. Retrieved from

19  Ibid.

20  Ontario Ministry of Finance. 2015. "2015 Ontario Budget: Developing a highly skilled workforce." Retrieved from

21  Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. 2015. "Ontario helps over 25,000 young people through the Youth Employment Fund [Press release]. Retrieved from

22  Government of Ontario. 2014. "Progress Report 2014: Jobs and economy." Retrieved from

23  Schøtt, T., Kew, P., & Cheraghi, M. 2015. Future potential: A GEM perspective on youth entrepreneurship 2015. Retrieved from

24  Ontario Student Leadership Conference. 2015. Retrieved from

25  Cole, T. J. et al. 2000. "Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey." British Medical Journal, 320(7244), 1240. Retrieved from