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Results-based Plan Briefing Book 2006-07

Ministry of Children and Youth Services

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Ministry of Children and Youth Services
The Estimates, 2006-07

Part I: Results-based Plan 2006-07

Ministry Overview

Ministry Vision and Mission

The Ministry of Children and Youth Services (MCYS) envisions an Ontario where children and youth have the best opportunity to succeed and reach their full potential. The ministry is working with other ministries and community partners to develop and implement policies, programs and a service system that helps give children the best possible start in life, prepare youth to become productive adults, and make it easier for families to access the services they need at all stages of a child's development.

Ministry Mandate

The mandate of the ministry is to:

The following programs and services are delivered through the Ministry of Children and Youth Services:

Best Start

Children and Youth at Risk

Specialized Services

Organization Chart

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Organization Chart

Independent of block funding received by the province under the Canada Social Transfer (CST) for Early Childhood Development (ECD) and Early Learning and Child Care (ELCC), the province receives federal funding under the following cost-sharing agreements:

Cost Sharing with the Federal Government

The province and the federal government cost share selected programs through the Indian Welfare Services Agreement and the Memorandum of Agreement Respecting Federal Contributions to Youth Justice Services and Programs. For the 2006-07 fiscal year, federal funding under these agreements is estimated at:

Federal Reimbursement
  Cash Accrual
Indian Welfare Services Agreement  
Best Start - Child Care and Early Learning $10,000,000 $11,000,000
Children and Youth at Risk $80,039,000 $86,191,000
Subtotal $90,039,000 $97,191,000
Agreement re: Youth Justice Services  
Youth Justice Services* $152,389,700 $65,000,000
Subtotal $152,389,700 $65,000,000
Total $242,428,700 $162,191,000

* The one-year extension to the five-year Youth Justice Services cost share agreement expired on March 31, 2006. The process and terms of another agreement are to be identified.

Statutes Administered by the Ministry of Children and Youth Services

Agencies, Boards and Commissions

  Accrual
2006-07
Estimates
Accrual
2005-2006
Interim Actuals
Accrual
2004-2005
Actuals
Child and Family Services Review Baord (CFSRB) 145,500 127,741 119,666
Custody Review Board (CRB) 100,000 66,570 58,440

Figures for CFSRB include Salaries and Wages but not Employee Benefits. CFSRB and CRB are administratively integrated with a common chair.

The Child and Family Services Review Board is required by law to conduct reviews under the authority of the Child and Family Services Act, the Intercountry Adoption Act, 1998, and the Education Act, upon receipt of applications to do so, regarding the following matters:

The Board is required to make orders on the matters that it reviews.

The Custody Review Board is required by law to conduct a review of a decision regarding:

The Board’s recommendations are not subject to review by the Minister or officials of the Ministry of Children and Youth Services.

Results-based Plan 2006-07

  1. Ministry Programs, Strategies and Objectives for 2006-07

    In 2006-07, the ministry will work with other ministries and community partners to transform and improve the many sectors that help children, youth and their families, including: child care and early childhood development; child well-being and protection; children with special needs; aboriginal children and youth; and youth in, or at risk of, coming into conflict with the law. The goal of the ministry’s investments is to build a system that gives children the best possible start in life, prepares youth to become productive adults and makes it easier for families to access the services most appropriate to their child’s needs at all stages of their development.

    Ministry’s Key Transformations

    Best Start – The ministry is committed to the goals of Best Start, which will help children arrive in Grade 1 ready to learn. The government’s plan supports children, prenatal through to age six, and their families. Best Start provides vital services that support children’s development, including infant screening and hearing programs, pre-school speech and language programs and other supports. As well, it involves an expansion of the province’s regulated system of early learning and quality, affordable child care to help parents balance the demands of work and family.

    To support the Best Start vision, the province signed a five-year (2005-06 to 2009-10) $1.9 billion Early Learning and Child Care (ELCC) agreement with the federal government to enhance and expand early learning and child care programs in Ontario. Early in 2006, the new federal government provided notification that it will terminate this agreement by March 31, 2007. For 2006-07, Ontario will receive a one-time final transfer payment from the federal government of $254 million. This funding will be allocated by the province over four years. Together with new funding from the 2003 Multilateral Framework on Early Learning and Child Care Agreement, this will result in $122.5 million available in new federal funding for Best Start this fiscal year, growing to $142.5 million through to 2009-10. The goal is to secure and sustain the more than 14,000 licensed child care spaces that municipalities have indicated they will create by September 2006 through funding for fee subsidies, wage improvements, special needs resourcing and administration, while continuing to urge the federal government to reconsider and honour the ELCC agreement.

    In 2006-07, the ministry will work with municipalities to implement the various components of Best Start, including learning and sharing best practices from the three demonstration communities – District of Timiskaming, rural areas of Lambton and Chatham-Kent and Hamilton’s east end – and implementation strategies for a province-wide standard 18-month well baby visit to help identify babies at risk as soon as possible.

    In addition, the ministry will continue to implement the comprehensive strategy to enhance quality in early learning and care settings:

    • With the advice of expert panels, the ministry will develop a learning framework for preschool children that can link to junior and senior kindergarten programs; and look at recruitment and retention of qualified early childhood education professionals.
    • The ministry is committed to the establishment of a College of Early Childhood Educators that would set out professional qualifications and standards for early childhood educators, as well as help to meet their ongoing training needs.

    As well, the ministry will develop a model for determining families’ eligibility for child care subsidies, based on income rather than the current needs test.

    Child Well-being and Protection – In 2006-07, new child well-being and protection legislation, the Child and Family Services Statute Law Amendment Act, 2005, is expected to come into force. The new legislation, passed on March 27, 2006, will encourage placement with a member of a child’s extended family or community where a child cannot remain in his/her home for protection reasons. It also provides a broader range of options, including legal custody and open adoption. The legislation is part of reforms by the government to help more children referred to a children’s aid society to grow up in stable, caring homes, and make children’s aid societies stronger and more accountable to the families and communities they serve.

    When fully implemented, reforms to Ontario’s child well-being and protection system will increase accountability of children’s aid societies through a stronger, more timely complaints process and other accountability mechanisms, which are complemented by oversight from the Auditor General and the Coroner’s Office. Under the new changes, families could bring certain complaints forward to a neutral third party, the Child and Family Services Review Board, over which the Ombudsman has jurisdiction. The reforms will also allow more children to be adopted, while keeping important ties to their birth family and community; bring consistency to the adoption application process, making it simpler and easier for prospective parents; create a province-wide registry to help match available children with prospective parents; help resolve child well-being and protection cases outside of the courtroom more quickly through collaborative solutions such as mediation; and provide children’s aid societies with the tools to support families facing challenges, so they can take better care of their children.

    In 2006-07, through a grant of $12 million over three years from the Ministry of Finance, the Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies, in partnership with the ministry, is proceeding with the development and pilot testing of a single information system designed to meet the recording and reporting requirements of all children’s aid societies and the ministry.

    Work is also proceeding on a new format for evaluating prospective adoptive parents, which will be used across the province for both public and private adoptions. The new format will increase consistency, quality and portability. Applicants who relocate within the province will be able to provide their approved homestudy for consideration in their new location.

    The ministry will also continue to work with the sector to identify cost containment opportunities.

    Children and Youth with Special Needs - The ministry will work with individuals, agencies and groups across the province to support children and youth with special needs. The goal is to make supports and services more accessible, better co-ordinated and centred on the needs of children and youth with one or more physical, developmental, behavioural, emotional or mental health disability or disorder. In 2006-07, the government is investing an additional $10 million to address the needs of children and youth with special needs and their families. The new funding is in addition to more than $110 million in new investments provided by the Ontario government since 2003-04.

    The ministry is now investing more than $100 million annually on autism services, including the autism intervention program and the school support program for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our investments have increased the number of children receiving Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) as well as the number of children being assessed for appropriate services sooner. Children receiving services are not being discharged from the program based on age. The goal is to provide a continuum of services and supports that is appropriate to a child’s developmental stage and helps them as they learn and grow. The ministry continues to look for new ways to increase system capacity and to build on the continuum of services provided. Graduates from the College Graduate Certificate Program in Autism and Behavioural Science, offered at six community colleges across the province, will strengthen the pool of qualified individuals for the autism intervention program and other children’s agencies. The first cohort of 100 students will graduate in spring, 2006. By 2007-08, the target enrolment will be 200. The ministry will also work with the Ministry of Education to identify best practices and learn from the experiences of service providers and school boards.

    As well, the ministry is helping to support Children’s Treatment Centres in regions across the province, so children and youth with special needs and their families can access services closer to home.

    A review of children and youth residential services across a number of sectors, including youth justice, child well-being and protection and special needs, will provide the ministry this year with valuable information as it works to strengthen the current system of residential licensing and services.

    The ministry is also providing more services for children and youth with mental health issues across the province through more than 200 new and expanded local children’s mental health programs, including community and school-based programs, outreach, prevention and specialized hospital care.
    The ministry is also working closely with the child and youth mental health sector to increase efficiency, better co-ordinate information, and to provide children, youth and their families with the support they need as early as possible.

    Youth Justice – In keeping with the intent of the federal Youth Criminal Justice Act, the ministry continues to reform the youth justice system so that it balances custody with community-based programs and services, maximizes the potential for youth rehabilitation, contributes to the reduction of re-offending rates and enables youth in conflict with the law to become positive contributors to their communities.

    In 2006-07, the ministry will spend $22 million to provide community alternative to custody programs for youth in conflict with the law. As part of this investment, the ministry will establish 12 new youth intervention centres - bringing the total to 27 across the province - that provide youth with structured and closely supervised programs to re-integrate them into their communities. Youth, aged 12 to 17, who have been found guilty of breaking the law, may be ordered by a judge to participate in a program at one of these centres as a condition of their probation. These programs and services, provided by community-based agencies, help youth accept responsibility for their actions and develop anger management, learning, employment and other life skills.

    The ministry will continue to realign the youth justice system so that it meets the needs of youth in conflict with the law in a manner separate and apart from the adult system and is coordinated with other services provided for children and youth. In 2006, construction will begin on the new GTA Youth Centre. The new dedicated secure custody facility, expected to open in fall 2008, will give youth in conflict with the law every opportunity to rehabilitate and succeed through professional training of staff, a full-case management process with links to the community, up-to-date programming and on-site facilities for education and skill development. Construction will also begin this year on a smaller, similar secure custody youth centre to open in Sault Ste. Marie in 2007, which will have the same focus.

    Youth Opportunities – In 2006-07, the ministry will work with community partners and other ministries to tackle the root causes of crime through preventive and remedial programs that directly help youth in their neighbourhoods. An investment of $28 million in the first three years of a Youth Opportunities Strategy, announced in February 2006, will expand employment and training programs and support the hiring of new youth outreach workers in at-risk communities, starting in Toronto and expanding across the province in 2007-08 to a number of other communities. The ministry will also continue to fund a broad range of prevention programs for children and youth at risk of becoming involved in violent or criminal activity.

    Aboriginal Children and Youth – In December 2005, Akwe:go, a new urban Aboriginal children’s program, was launched. The goal of this program is to provide urban Aboriginal children ages seven to 12 with the support, tools and activities that will build upon and foster their ability to make healthy choices. The Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres is delivering the program through its 27 friendship centres across the province. The ministry will also continue to work with Aboriginal communities on the designation of Aboriginal children’s aid societies.

    Independent Child and Youth Advocate – To better advocate for vulnerable children, youth and their families, it is anticipated that in 2006-07, the ministry will introduce legislation that would, if passed, establish an independent Child and Youth Advocate as an officer of the legislature.

    The Child and Youth Advocate reviews cases where there are complaints regarding the treatment or care of a child or youth in a program funded by the Ministry of Children and Youth Services. This includes children and youth receiving services through the youth justice system, foster, group or residential care, and kids with physical or developmental disabilities who are seeking approved services under the Child and Family Services Act.

  2. Ministry Support of Key Government Commitments

    Over the last two years, the Ministry of Children and Youth Services has been working in partnership with many stakeholders, including other ministries, agencies, and municipalities to transform the way in which programs, services and supports are delivered to children and youth across the province. Many key results have been achieved and progress has been made towards building a system that:

    • Gives Ontario’s children the opportunity to get the best possible start in life;
    • Helps children and youth with special needs and their families;
    • Makes it easier for families to access the services they need at all stages of a child’s development;
    • Provides more stability for children and youth in the child protection system, as well as stability for the sector;
    • Helps youth in conflict with the law to succeed and become productive members of society;
    • Provides increased opportunities for youth in at-risk communities; and
    • Gives a voice to children, youth and families.

    In 2006-07, the ministry will continue to move forward with key programs and services that help give Ontario children and youth the best opportunity to succeed and reach their full potential.

  3. Ministry Contribution to Government Priorities

    Building an Ontario where children and youth have the best opportunity to succeed and reach their full potential supports the government’s priorities of success for students, better health and safe, vital communities.

    To address the root causes of youth violence and help make Ontario communities safer, the ministry is working with community partners, other ministries and levels of government to give youth in at-risk communities increased opportunities that will help them make the right choices to succeed in life.

    Through its Best Start plan, the ministry is helping Ontario’s youngest children arrive at Grade 1 ready to achieve success.

    By strengthening the province’s child protection system and improving services for children and youth with special needs and their families, the ministry is providing hope and opportunity to Ontario’s most vulnerable young people.

Key Performance Measures and Results

Strategy Government Priority Result Measures Achievements
Best Start Success for Students Improved readiness to learn
  • More Kids arriving at school ready to learn.
  • Results of EDI for Spring 2005 indicate that Ontario children are doing better at entry to Grade 1 compared to Canada-wide norms. Full baseline to be completed by Summer 2006.
  • Improved access to high quality child care across the province that will help children to be ready for school.
  • Over 4,000 new subsidized child care spaces created in 2004/05.
  • OEYC program reach increased from 28.3% to 35.7%.
  • Improved access to screening, referral and home visiting services that will help to identify risk factors early on.
  • Percentage of birth mothers screened post-partum for child development risk factors increased from 89% to 92%.
  • Percentage of babies screened for hearing impairment increased from 92% in 2003-04 to 96% in 2004-05.
Special Needs Stronger, Safer Communities Better protect Ontario’s children
  • The number of children and youth served with the additional funding.
  • The number of additional residential spaces created.
  • The number of additional children and youth receiving new or enhanced community supports and the type of supports.
  • New measures – the ministry will monitor the measures on a quarterly basis.
Children and Youth at Risk
Child Protection Services Stronger, Safer Communities Better protect Ontario’s children Permanency
  • Increasing the proportion of Crown ward orders that enable the child to be adopted (e.g. openness orders).
  • Increasing the number of children who are adopted, relative to the number of children eligible for adoption in Ontario during each of the next three years.
  • New measures beginning in 2006-07.
Child Safety
  • Reducing the proportion of previously closed child welfare cases that reopen within 12 months as a result of a new maltreatment report.
  • New measures beginning in 2006-07.
Alternative Dispute Resolution
  • Increasing the proportion of cases where mediation or other alternative dispute resolution methods are used to resolve protection concerns.
  • New measures beginning in 2006-07.
Client Complaints
  • The Ministry will collect baseline data in 2006-07 on the types of complaints that will likely be referred to the Child and Family Services Review Board. These include the number of complaints regarding a) issues of fairness related to the Society’s complaints process; b) the quality of service; c) the accuracy of/access to records; and d) the turnaround time between when a complaint has been received to when a response is given.
  • New measures beginning in 2006-07.
Youth Justice Services Stronger, Safer Communities Enable youth in conflict with the law to become contributing members of society
  • A reduction in peer-on-peer aggression in youth justice facilities. (MCYS is currently developing a baseline in 2005-06 with a target reduction rate of 5% in 2006-07.)
  • A reduction in custody bed utilization. (MCYS used 2004-05 as a baseline to coincide with YCJA legislation implementation.)
  • A reduction in youth re-offending rates. (MCYS plans to develop baseline data by June 2006 with a target 5% reduction in re-offending by 2007-08.)
  • Development of baselines on track.
  • 10% targeted reduction met.
Child and Youth Mental Health Stronger, Safer Communities Better protect Ontario’s children
  • Improved functioning at exit from service.
  • Preliminary results based on 2164 cases indicate that 66.1% of children and youth receiving treatment experienced significant improvement at the time of exit from service.

Ministry Planned Expenditures 2006-07
  Ministry Planned Expenditures ($M) 2006-07
Operating $3,245
Infrastructure $19

Ministry Planned Expenditures by Program Name 2006-07
  Ministry of Children and Youth Services
$3,264 million
 
Business Supports
$13 million
Children and Youth Services
$3,232 million
Infrastructure
$19 million

Appendix I: Results-based Plan 2005-06 and Annual Report 2004-05

Ministry of Children and Youth Services

  1. Ministry Programs, Strategies and Objectives for 2005-06

    In 2005-06, the ministry will improve services and supports for children, youth and families in Ontario by staying on track with its key transformations, managing the existing system, supporting a range of programs and services, as well as developing integrated approaches to service delivery.

    In addition, the ministry will continue to encourage partnerships across sectors to support initiatives for children and youth.

    Ministry’s Key Transformations

    • Best Start – The goal of Best Start is to help more children arrive at Grade 1 ready to learn. Beginning in 2005-06, the full Best Start plan will be implemented and evaluated in three demonstration communities: the District of Timiskaming, the rural areas of Lambton and Chatham-Kent, and Hamilton’s east end. The province will also continue to waive the requirement for municipalities to cost share on the new child care funding for Best Start. As well, the ministry will work closely with all Ontario municipalities to help them start to implement Best Start in their communities in a way that meets local needs and makes sense for their families.

    • Children and Youth with Special Needs – Children and youth with special needs require specialized supports to participate in activities of daily life on a long-term or intermittent basis. In 2005-06, the ministry will work with its partners to begin to transform the specialized supports system to make it more flexible and responsive to children, youth and their families.

    • At-Risk Children and Youth – In 2005-06, the Child Welfare Secretariat will continue to carry out extensive consultations to reform the child well-being and protection system and build a system that is more flexible and better able to respond to the needs of children who are in the care of children’s aid societies. The ministry will also carry out a comprehensive review of residential services across child welfare, children’s mental health, youth justice and the specialized supports system.

      In an effort to reduce re-offending and peer-on-peer aggression, the Youth Justice transformation will continue to remove youth units from adult facilities and reduce the overall use of custody beds. Funding will be re-invested in community-based alternatives to custody and work will continue on the creation of a single probation and custodial system dedicated to youth.

      The ministry will continue with its plan to build a new, state-of-the-art facility to replace the former Toronto Youth Assessment Centre and Invictus Youth Centre. The new facility will help rehabilitate youth in custody by increasing contact with staff and helping to decrease tension and aggression among peers.

  2. Ministry Support of Key Government Commitments

    The creation of the Ministry of Children and Youth Services in 2003 – the first new ministry in Ontario in more than 20 years – signalled the government’s commitment to achieve an Ontario where all children and youth have the best opportunity to succeed and reach their full potential.

    In 2005-06, the ministry will continue to make a difference for Ontario’s children, youth and families by staying on track with its key transformations, managing the existing system, supporting a range of programs and services, as well as developing integrated approaches to service delivery. By carrying out this work, the ministry will continue to make progress in achieving the government’s goal of giving children and youth the best opportunities to be successful in school and in life.

  3. Ministry Contribution to Government Priorities

    The Best Start plan will help give children the best possible start in life by enhancing their readiness to learn, their overall health and quality of life and ability to succeed in school. The plan reflects the government’s commitment to Ontario’s children and is consistent with the government’s priorities of health, education and economic prosperity.

    By developing a system of supports for children and youth with special needs that is modern, efficient, easier to navigate and has greater accountability, the ministry is supporting the government’s priority of strong people and strong economy.

    To address the complexity of needs of at-risk children and youth, the ministry has integrated policy development and program design for child welfare, youth justice and children’s mental health under dedicated lead directors and assistant deputy ministers. Linking these programs and transformations will help the government better protect children and build safer, stronger communities.

Ministry Planned Expenditures 2005-06
  Ministry Planned Expenditures ($M) 2005-06
Operating $3,196
Infrastructure $109

Ministry Planned Expenditures by Program Name 2005-06
  Ministry of Children and Youth Services
$3,306 million
 
Business Supports
$13 million
Children and Youth Services
$3,183 million
Infrastructure
$109 million

Ministry Achievements

Best Start

In 2004-05, the ministry laid the foundation for Best Start by investing $58 million in federal funding to help create more than 4,000 new subsidized child care spaces. This investment also funded minor capital projects in child care centres, such as adding washrooms and playgrounds. The ministry began investing $9.5 million to provide early screening and support to the 130,000 children born in Ontario each year and $4.7 million for speech language services to pre-schoolers and their families.

Three demonstration communities were selected to roll out the full Best Start vision: the District of Timiskaming, rural areas of Lambton and Kent, and Hamilton’s east end.

The government also invested $4.4 million in community-based family support services, education, awareness and outreach through the Aboriginal Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Child Nutrition Program. In addition, the government nearly doubled its investment in student nutrition programs so children will have the best opportunities to learn at school.

Children with Special Needs

To enhance community-based services for children and youth who use mental health services, the ministry provided funding to more than 200 local programs across the province. The government also invested $13 million to create 113 new programs and expand 96 existing programs that target young people with social and behavioural problems, mental health and psychiatric disorders. This investment is part of a $25 million increase in funding that the government provided for children’s mental health services.

In 2004-05, the ministry provided children’s mental health services to more than 110,000 children and youth through about 250 agencies.

The ministry also invested $5.9 million to help launch the new Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health in partnership with the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario. The centre is a resource to improve how mental health services are delivered to young people and their families across the province.

Twenty-one children’s treatment centres across the province provide support to about 35,000 to 40,000 children and youth with special needs and their families, including Bloorview Kids’ Rehab, which is funded by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. In 2004-05, the Ministry of Children and Youth Services reduced a large gap in service by announcing the opening of new children’s treatment centres in York Region/Simcoe County and in North Bay.

As well, the ministry provided more funding to children’s treatment centres to help them better serve the children and youth in their communities and will provide $24 million over four years beginning in 2004/05 to expand and/or upgrade the following centres:

In 2004-05, the ministry also implemented a number of initiatives to provide valuable support to children with autism. More than 110 new therapists were hired to provide behavioural therapy through the Preschool Intervention Program for Children with Autism and the waiting list for assessment was reduced by more than 70 per cent. These initiatives helped about 25 per cent more children access services.

To provide support for school-aged children with autism, 130 autism professionals were hired through the province’s new School Support Program. These professionals help teachers and other educators support students with autism and are now active in publicly-funded school boards across the province.

Child Welfare

In 2004, the ministry established the Child Welfare Secretariat to reform the child protection system and build a system that is more flexible and better able to respond to the needs of children who are in the care of children’s aid societies.

In 2004-05, the ministry developed a comprehensive package of policy reforms and legislative changes that was passed by the legislature on March 27, 2006. This legislation will help more children in the child protection system grow up in stable, caring homes, and make children’s aid societies more accountable to the families and communities they serve. In order to put children’s aid societies on a stable footing so they are well-positioned to make these changes, the government provided them with more than $90 million in additional funding.

The minister also designated the province’s newest children’s aid society – the Native Child and Family Services of Toronto – and completed a review of the Child and Family Services Act. And to help ease the financial burden on families who are adopting children from another country, the ministry eliminated provincial fees on all international adoptions.

Youth in Trouble with the Law

Recognizing that youth in trouble with the law have different needs from adult offenders, the government transferred responsibility for youth justice services to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services in 2004.

In 2004-05, the ministry also invested $9 million in community-based alternatives to custody, including 10 new centres that provide structure and supervised programs to low-risk youth who have been in trouble with the law.

In addition, the government announced that it would build a new state-of-the-art Youth Centre in the Toronto area to replace an older centre. The new facility includes smaller units, better supervision and on-site classrooms and rehabilitation services. At the same time, the ministry closed two youth units in adult facilities to support the move to a dedicated system for youth.

A Voice for Children, Youth and Families

The ministry commissioned a third-party review of the work of the Office of Child and Family Service Advocacy, which recommended the establishment of an independent Child and Youth Advocate as an officer of the legislature.

To help parents, children and professionals find the information they need, the ministry also created a children’s information website at www.childrensinfo.ca in 2004-05. The website provides a quick guide to all Ontario government information related to children, youth and families, and is part of the government’s commitment to improved customer service.


  Ministry Actual Expenditures ($M) 2004-05
Operating 2,831
Capital 4.3
Staff Strength
(as of March 31, 2005)
2,000.1 Full-time equivalents